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Glossary

 

Bandwidth
The amount of data you can send through a network or modem connection. It is usually measured in bits-per-second.

Blog
A Web site on which an individual or group of users record their opinions in the style of a journal on a regular basis.

Broadband
Broadband Internet access, often shortened to "broadband Internet" or just "broadband", is a high data-transmission rate Internet connection.

Browser
A software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web.

Cache
A cache is a block of memory for temporary storage of data likely to be used again. A web browser uses a cache to store the pages and URLs of web sites you visit on your computer's hard drive, as accessing your hard disk is much faster than again downloading this date to your computer.

CCTLD
Country Code Top Level Domain. This is a top level domain used and reserved for a country or dependent territory. A ccTLD is two characters long for example .uk for the United Kingdom.

Complainant
A person or organisation that files a complaint under Nominet's Dispute Resolution Service (DRS).

Cyberspace
This term is often used to refer to objects and identities that exist largely within the communication network itself, so that a web site, for example, might be metaphorically said to "exist in cyberspace."

Cybersquatting
The practice of registering a third party's intellectual property (or similarly spelt variants) as a domain name with the sole intention of approaching them with an offer to sell it to them sometimes at an inflated price. Some cybersquatters can attempt to coerce the individual or company into buying the name by posting inappropriate material on the web site.

Detagged
A domain name that has been detagged is no longer hosted on two valid name servers. This stops any services associated with the domain name, for example email or a web site from working.

DNS
The domain name system (DNS) translates domain names (alphabetically based) into IP addresses (number based). The DNS system is its own network. If one DNS server does not know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned.

DNSSEC
DNSSEC stands for DNS Security Extensions. These extensions provide DNS with authentication of responses from DNS servers and thereby aim to prevent DNS spoofing, which is a common technique used by hackers.

Domain name
Domain names are alphabetical versions of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. These are unique and are  used in web addresses (http://www.nominet.org.uk)   and in email addresses (firstname.lastname@nominet.org.uk) among other things.

DRS
The Dispute Resolution Service (DRS) is our formal complaints process that handles disputes about the registration or use of .uk domain names. (link to DRS page)

E-commerce
The purchase of goods and services over the Internet usually with secure connection (HTTPS, a special server protocol that encrypts confidential ordering data for customer protection) using electronic payment services.

Email
Short for electronic mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages across the Internet or other computer networks.

ENUM
ENUM is designed to enable you to call someone on different electronic communications devices and software applications by using a single identifier - a telephone number converted into a domain name.

FCFS
First-come, first-served. We operate the .uk registry on this basis for the allocation of domain names. Nominet does not make any decisions on who has the greater right to a domain name.

GTLD
Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD), a top level domain that is not a country code top level. Examples of these are .com, .org and .net.

HTML
Hypertext Markup Language is the programming language of the World Wide Web and HTML software turns a document into a hyperlinked web page. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document

Hypertext
Generally any text that contains a link to other documents or web page to be retrieved and displayed.

IANA
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, DNS root zone management, and other Internet protocol assignments. It is operated by ICANN.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. An international, not-for-profit, private sector organisation created to coordinate four key functions of the Internet: managing the domain name system, allocating IP address space, assigning protocol parameters and managing the root server system.

IDN
Internationalised Domain Names. An internationalised domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (potentially) contains non-ASCII characters. Such domain names could contain letters with diacritics, as required by many European languages, or characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese.

IGF
The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a process established by the United Nations, to facilitate multi-stakeholder policy dialogue about Internet governance.

Internet
A global computer network consisting of interconnected networks using standardised communication protocols. The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A company that provides access to the Internet and other related services such as hosting and domain name registration.

Intranet
A private network only for internal use that you would not find on the public Internet.

IP address
A unique numeric identifier identifying machines that are connected to the Internet.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6 is the increase in the number of IP addresses available for networked devices.

Mediation
Mediation is the use of a neutral third party to facilitate the settlement of a dispute.

Member
Members of Nominet are eligible to vote on policy issues and annual elections to Nominet's Board and Policy Advisory Body.

Name server
Performs the mapping of easily remembered domain names to IP addresses.

Network
Any time you connect two or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect two or more networks together and you have an Internet.

Nom-announce
This is a mailing list for Nominet members.

Nominet
Nominet is a private, not-for-profit business, responsible for the smooth and secure running of the .uk Internet infrastructure.  We have over 2,800 members and are committed to acting in the public interest.

PDF
Portable Document Format - a file format developed by Adobe Systems that provides an electronic image of text or text and graphics that looks like a printed document.

Register database
The definitive database of all domain name registrations within the .uk Top Level Domain.

Registrant
The 'legal entity' that registered a specific domain name. They hold the right to use that domain name for a specified period of time, bound by Nominet's terms and conditions of domain name registration.

Registrar
A registrar is the organisation through which people register domain names. The registrar may be a member of Nominet, but they act on their customer's behalf rather than our behalf.

Registrar change
This is the name for the process of changing the registrar associated to your domain name.

Registry
Nominet is the registry for the .uk country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD).

Renewal
All domain names are subject to renewal on the anniversary of the registration date.

Resolve
This is the term used to describe the process for matching domain names with corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to access the required website.

Respondent
The person or organisation that the domain name is registered for, and against whom the complainant in a DRS case makes their complaint.

Reverse domain name hijacking
Where there is an attempt to unfairly wrest control of a domain name from the current registrant. For example, someone could register the name of a currently used domain name as a company and then claiming that the registrant is infringing your rights.

RFC
When a new standard is established on the Internet it is given the reference RFC and a specific number.

RIPE
Short for Reseaux IP Europeans. RIPE is one of three regional Internet registries that supply and administer IP addresses. RIPE is a not-for-profit organisation run by volunteers that provides IP numbers to Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa and Asia.

Root
The root is the top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Often referred to as the 'dot'.

Server
This is a computer on a network which serves information to the computers that connect to it.

Second Level Domain
In the domain name 'nominet.org.uk', the .uk is the top level, and the .org is the second level. SLDs commonly indicate the type of organisations that would register domains within them. For example, in .uk, the .org SLD is for organisations, .co is for companies and .me is for personal use.

Spam
Spam is junk email sent on the Internet to a large number of recipients. Some email clients or servers have spam filters, which try to delete or move the spam messages.

Tag
This is the unique identifying codename that Nominet UK assigns to a registrar.

Terms and Conditions
Our terms and conditions represent the contract between the domain name registrant and Nominet.

TLD
In the domain name 'nominet.org.uk', the .uk is the top level

Trademark
A trademark is a distinct sign or indicator of some kind that is used by an individual, business organisation or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.

UDRP
The Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP) is a process established by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) for the resolution of disputes regarding the registration of internet domain names. The UDRP policy currently applies to all .biz, .com, .info, .name, .net, and .org top-level domains, and some country code top-level domains.

URL
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. In short, it's a web address, like www.nominet.org.uk. If you type it into a web browser, you will reach the web site hosted at that address.

 .uk Policy Process
Acts as a bridge between Nominet's Board and Nominet's members, to channel stakeholder feedback into the development of Nominet policy. 

WHOIS
WHOIS is a look-up service that is used to find information about domain names and whether they are available for registration.

Wiki
A wiki is a collection of web pages designed to enable anyone who can access it to contribute or modify content. Wikipedia, the collaborative encyclopaedia is one of the best-known wikis.

 

 

© Nominet UK 2014